Smoking Induces Overexpression of Immediate Early Genes in Active Graves' Ophthalmopathy - oneGRAVESvoice

Trusted Resources: Evidence & Education

Scientific literature and patient education texts

Back to Evidence & Education / Scientific Articles

Smoking Induces Overexpression of Immediate Early Genes in Active Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

key information

source: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association

year: 2014

authors: Planck T, Shahida B, Parikh H, Ström K, Åsman P, Brorson H, Hallengren B, Lantz M


Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO). In a previous study of gene expression in intraorbital fat, adipocyte-related immediate early genes (IEGs) were overexpressed in patients with GO compared to controls. We investigated whether IEGs are upregulated by smoking, and examined other pathways that may be affected by smoking.

Gene expression in intraorbital fat was studied in smokers (n=8) and nonsmokers (n=8) with severe active GO, as well as in subcutaneous fat in thyroid-healthy smokers (n=5) and nonsmokers (n=5) using microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

With microarray, eight IEGs were upregulated more than 1.5-fold in smokers compared to nonsmokers with GO. Five were chosen for confirmation and were also overexpressed with real-time PCR. Interleukin-1 beta/IL-1B/(2.3-fold) and interleukin-6/IL-6/(2.4-fold) were upregulated both with microarray and with real-time PCR in smokers with GO compared to nonsmokers. Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1/HLA-DRB1/was upregulated with microarray (2.1-fold) and with borderline significance with real-time PCR. None of these genes were upregulated in smokers compared to nonsmokers in subcutaneous fat.

IEGs, IL-1B, and IL-6 were overexpressed in smokers with severe active GO compared to nonsmokers, suggesting that smoking activates pathways associated with adipogenesis and inflammation. This study underlines the importance of IEGs in the pathogenesis of GO, and provides evidence for possible novel therapeutic interventions in GO. The mechanisms activated by smoking may be shared with other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.

organization: Skåne University Hospital, Sweden

DOI: 10.1089/thy.2014.0153

read more

To improve your experience on this site, we use cookies. This includes cookies essential for the basic functioning of our website, cookies for analytics purposes, and cookies enabling us to personalize site content. By clicking on 'Accept' or any content on this site, you agree that cookies can be placed. You may adjust your browser's cookie settings to suit your preferences. More Information

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.