Teprotumumab and the Evolving Therapeutic Landscape in Thyroid Eye Disease - oneGRAVESvoice

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Teprotumumab and the Evolving Therapeutic Landscape in Thyroid Eye Disease

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source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

year: 2022

authors: Andrea Lora Kossler, Raymond Douglas, Chrysoula Dosiou


Context: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a sight-threatening and debilitating autoimmune condition, with limited therapies available, that often poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In recent years, the treatment landscape has shifted to early intervention with targeted therapy.

Methods: A PubMed review of the literature was conducted for the period between 1979 and 2021. Search terms included thyroid eye disease, teprotumumab, targeted therapy, Graves disease, Graves ophthalmopathy, dysthyroid optic neuropathy, and related terms in different combinations. Novel biologic therapies for TED have emerged as alternatives to traditional steroid regimens in recent years. New insights into TED pathophysiology have uncovered the role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and led to the development of teprotumumab, an IGF-1R-inhibiting monoclonal antibody.

Results: Randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of teprotumumab for TED led to Food and Drug Administration approval. Teprotumumab is gradually replacing immunosuppressive agents as first-line therapy in the United States for active moderate-to-severe TED, while emerging reports also show its use in other stages of the disease. Recent data highlight risk factors for adverse events and screening protocols to maximize patient safety. Personalized therapeutic plans developed through effective partnership between endocrinologists and ophthalmologists aim to enhance the safety and outcomes of TED treatments and improve care for this complex disease.

Conclusion: TED management is shifting to an era of targeted therapy with multidisciplinary care. Teprotumumab has demonstrated superior efficacy to conventional treatments and has transformed our therapeutic and surgical algorithms. Clinical guidelines and additional studies are needed to further guide and refine therapy.

organization: Stanford University School of Medicine, USA; Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, USA

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgac168

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