Understanding Pathogenesis Intersects With Effective Treatment for Thyroid Eye Disease - oneGRAVESvoice

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Understanding Pathogenesis Intersects With Effective Treatment for Thyroid Eye Disease

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source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

year: 2023

authors: Terry J Smith


Context: Thyroid eye disease (TED), a vision-threatening and disfiguring autoimmune process, has thwarted our efforts to understand its pathogenesis and develop effective and safe treatments. Recent scientific advances have facilitated improved treatment options.

Objective: Review historically remote and recent advances in understanding TED.

Design/setting/participants: PubMed was scanned using search terms including thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, thyroid eye disease, Graves’ orbitopathy, autoimmune thyroid disease, and orbital inflammation.

Main outcome measures: Strength of scientific evidence, size, scope, and controls of clinical trials/observations.

Results: Glucocorticoid steroids are widely prescribed systemic medical therapy. They can lessen inflammation-related manifestations of TED but fail to reliably reduce proptosis and diplopia, 2 major causes of morbidity. Other current therapies include mycophenolate, rituximab (anti-CD20 B cell-depleting monoclonal antibody), tocilizumab (interleukin-6 receptor antagonist), and teprotumumab (IGF-I receptor inhibitor). Several new therapeutic approaches have been proposed including targeting prostaglandin receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor, mTOR, and cholesterol pathways. Of potentially greater long-term importance are attempts to restore immune tolerance.

Conclusion: Despite their current wide use, steroids may no longer enjoy first-tier status for TED as more effective and better tolerated medical options become available. Multiple current and emerging therapies, the rationales for which are rooted in theoretical and experimental science, promise better options. These include teprotumumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab. Restoration of immune tolerance could ultimately become the most effective and safe medical management for TED.

organization: University of Michigan Medical School, USA

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgac328

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