source: Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Dickinson AJ, Eckstein A, Kendall-Taylor P, Marcocci C, Mourits MP, Perros P, Boboridis K, Boschi A, Currò N, Daumerie C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas G, Lane CM, Lazarus JH, Marinò M, Nardi M, Neoh C, Orgiazzi J, Pearce S, Pinchera A, Pitz S, Salvi M, Sivelli P, Stahl M, von Arx G, Wiersinga WM
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) constitutes a major clinical and therapeutic challenge. GO is an autoimmune disorder representing the commonest and most important extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease, but it may occur in patients without current or prior hyperthyroidism (euthyroid or ophthalmic Graves’ disease) or in patients who are hypothyroid due to chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis. Although the pathogenesis of GO (5–9) is beyond the scope of this document, attention is drawn to the link between the orbit and thyroid, which has important clinical and therapeutic implications. Optimal management of GO requires a coordinated approach addressing the thyroid dysfunction and the orbitopathy.
GO is often mild and self-limiting, and probably declining in frequency, with only 3–5% of cases posing a threat to eyesight. The onset and progression of GO are influenced by factors that are potentially controllable such as cigarette smoking, thyroid dysfunction, and choice of treatment modalities for hyperthyroidism.
University of Insubria, Varese, Italy; Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany; Johannes Gutenberg University (JGU) Medical Center, Germany; University of Pisa, Italy; Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK; University of Milan, Italy; University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
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