source: Gland Surgery
Doubleday AR, Sippel RS
Hyperthyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland produces and secretes inappropriately high amounts of thyroid hormone which can lead to thyrotoxicosis. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in the United States is approximately 1.2%. There are many different causes of hyperthyroidism, and the most common causes include Graves’ disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. The diagnosis can be made based on clinical findings and confirmed with biochemical tests and imaging techniques including ultrasound and radioactive iodine uptake scans. This condition impacts many different systems of the body including the integument, musculoskeletal, immune, ophthalmic, reproductive, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. It is important to recognize common cardiovascular manifestations such as hypertension and tachycardia and to treat these patients with beta blockers.
Early treatment of cardiovascular manifestations along with treatment of the hyperthyroidism can prevent significant cardiovascular events. Management options for hyperthyroidism include anti-thyroid medications, radioactive iodine, and surgery. Anti-thyroid medications are often used temporarily to treat thyrotoxicosis in preparation for more definitive treatment with radioactive iodine or surgery, but in select cases, patients can remain on antithyroid medications long-term. Radioactive iodine is a successful treatment for hyperthyroidism but should not be used in GD with ophthalmic manifestations.
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, USA