Recent advances in graves ophthalmopathy medical therapy: a comprehensive literature review - oneGRAVESvoice

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Recent advances in graves ophthalmopathy medical therapy: a comprehensive literature review

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source: International Ophthalmology

year: 2023

authors: Xueting Li, Senmao Li, Wanlin Fan, Alexander C Rokohl, Sitong Ju, Xiaojun Ju, Yongwei Guo, Ludwig M Heindl


Graves ophthalmopathy (GO), which occurs in autoimmune thyroid disease, can reduce patients’ quality of life due to its impact on visual function, physical appearance, and emotional health. Corticosteroids have been the first-line treatment for GO. More recently, the pathogenesis of GO has made significant progress. Various targeting biological agents and immunosuppressive agents make GO management more promising. Fully understanding GO pathogenesis and precise clinical management are beneficial for the prognosis of patients. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of the medical management of GO and summarized research developments to highlight future research issues.

organization: University of Cologne, Germany; Aachen-Bonn-Cologne-Duesseldorf, Germany; Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China

DOI: 10.1007/s10792-022-02537-6

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