source: Autoimmunity Reviews
Bruscolini A, Sacchetti M, La Cava M, Nebbioso M, Iannitelli A, Quartini A, Lambiase A, Ralli M, de Virgilio A, Greco A
Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune chronic thyroiditis frequently associated with development of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) characterized by proptosis, strabismus, impairment of visual function, ocular surface inflammation and dry eye. As consequence, patients with GO experience impairment of quality of life and social function and could develop a neurobehavioral syndrome, ranging from anxious to depressive or psychotic disorders.
To date, the pathogenic mechanism underlying neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with GD has not been clearly understood. In fact, the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with GO has been associated with both the detrimental effects of the altered circulating thyroid hormones on the nervous system, and with the psychological discomfort caused by poor quality of life, reduced social interactions and relapsing course of the disease.
This paper summarizes current evidence on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in Graves’ disease focusing on its impact on QoL and psychosocial function. We remark the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and we emphasize the potential benefit of neuropsychiatric approach on disease perception, patient compliance to medical and/or surgical treatment and clinical outcomes.
University Sapienza of Rome, Italy; University of l'Aquila, Italy; A. Fiorini Hospital, Italy