Thyroid eye disease is a disabling autoimmune disease associated with orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling which can result in significant proptosis, leading to visual alterations and is potentially sight threatening. Current evidence indicates that autoantibodies to the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), along with the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), mediate the pathogenesis in susceptible individuals.
Teprotumumab, a monoclonal IGF-1R antagonist, has demonstrated previously in a 24 week, randomized, controlled trial to produce significant changes in composite outcomes of proptosis and clinical activity score as compared with placebo. Further examination of the proptosis results reported here, indicate that the proptosis outcome (≥ 2 mm reduction) was met in 71.4% of the teprotumumab-treated patients as compared with 20% of the placebo-treated patients (p < 0.001).
Additionally, the proptosis benefit was observed early in the trial (study week 6), and all individual patients demonstrated some benefit at week 24. Improvement was noted among smokers, non-smokers, men and women, and particularly those with higher levels of proptosis at baseline. The level of proptosis reduction with teprotumumab reported here is similar to that seen with decompression surgery. If these results are confirmed in the ongoing Phase 3 trial, teprotumumab will offer an alternative to surgery and its associated complications.
Cedars Sinai Medical Center, USA; Zhongshen Ophthalmic Center, China
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