Future Projections in Thyroid Eye Disease - oneGRAVESvoice

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Future Projections in Thyroid Eye Disease

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source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

year: 2022

authors: Giuseppe Barbesino, Mario Salvi, Suzanne K Freitag


Background and aims: This review aims to summarize current and emerging therapies for treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED), in the light of novel understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms, leading to new treatment options and clinical trials.

Methods: We reviewed and analyzed peer-reviewed literature reporting recent translational studies and clinical trials in the treatment of TED. Searches were made at www.pubmed.gov with keywords “thyroid eye disease,” “Graves’ ophthalmopathy,” “thyroid orbitopathy,” and “Graves’ orbitopathy.”

Results: Surgery is reserved for rehabilitation in chronic TED or for emergent compressive optic neuropathy. Oral and intravenous glucocorticoid therapy has been used for decades with variable efficacy in acute TED, but results may be temporary and side effects significant. Nonsteroidal oral immunosuppressive agents offer modest benefit in TED. Several immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, including rituximab and tocilizumab, have shown efficacy for inactivating TED. Recently, teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor, has demonstrated significant improvement in proptosis, clinical activity score, diplopia, and quality of life in patients with active TED, with good tolerability. Newly proposed TED therapies, currently in preclinical and clinical trial phases, include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor inhibitory drugs, RVT-1401, local anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, IGF-1R drugs delivered subcutaneously and orally, and desensitization to the TSH receptor with modified TSH receptor peptides.

Conclusion: New, albeit incomplete, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TED has led to new promising therapies and offered improved outcomes in TED patients. Their full role and their relationship to classical immune suppression should be clarified over the next few years.

organization: Harvard Medical School, USA; Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Italy

DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgac252

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