Trusted Resources: Evidence & Education
Scientific literature and patient education texts
source: Family Practice Notebook
Most common cause of Thyrotoxicosis in the United States (up to 60-80% of cases).
• Autoimmune disorder.
• Thyroid stimulating antibodies bind TSH receptors, resulting in Thyroid hormone synthesis and release.
• Female gender.
• Autoimmune Disorder (or Family History of autoimmune disorder).
Signs: Specific to Grave’s Disease
• See Hyperthyroidism
• Diffuse, smooth Goiter
– Palpated thrill or audible bruit over Thyroid
• Infiltrative ophthalmopathy or orbitopathy (Thyroid Eye Disease)
– Proptosis (Exophthalmos) in 25-50% of cases
– Periorbital swelling
– Pretibial Myxedema (Thyroid dermopathy) occurs in 1.5% of cases
a. Swelling over the tibia
b. Peau d’ orange skin changes
– Thyroid Acropachy (hand soft tissue swelling and Digital Clubbing)
– Skin Pigment Changes (patchy Hyperpigmentation or vitilgo)
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