evidence & education - scientific literature & patient education texts | oneGRAVESvoice

Trusted Resources: Evidence & Education

Scientific literature and patient education texts

139 resources available:
It’s the buzz word of the year: self-care. You’ve probably seen the articles about why self-care isn’t selfish and the lists of activities you can do to look after yourself. The stories invoke images of massages and spa days, sipping vibrant veggie juices in trendy yoga outfits and snugging up with a blanket and a book in front of the fireplace. But when your energy and mobility are limited, self-care becomes a lot less g...

Hyperthyroidism – Boston Children’s Hospital

Boston Children's Hospital Year: N/A
Hyperthyroidism (also known as an overactive thyroid) occurs when the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone (thyroxine). Hyperthyroidism is relatively rare in childhood, occurring in about 1 in 5,000 children and adolescents. With the right diagnosis and management, hyperthyroidism is a treatable disease, and your child can go on to live a full, active, and enjoyable life. There are several possible causes of hyperthyroidism. Graves dis...

Hyperthyroidism in Children

Children's Hospital Colorado Year: 2022
Hyperthyroidism happens when a child’s thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormone than they need. The thyroid gland is butterfly-shaped and is located in the neck, just below Adam’s apple. Its job is to release thyroid hormone into the blood to control the body’s heart rate, temperature, and metabolism. An overactive thyroid gland can get big and it may look and feel like a lump in the throat, especially when the child swallows. When the...

Graves’ Disease in Children

Stanford Medicine Children's Health Year: 2022
What is Graves’ disease in children? Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with proteins called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, the body makes antibodies that attack its own tissues. With Graves’ disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Excess thyroid hormone in the bloodst...
As you grow up it’s only natural to want to feel ‘normal’ and just to fit in with your friends. It can therefore be hard to accept that you have a medical condition that can mean you have to take daily medication. It is understandable that you may feel frustrated to have to miss school or work to attend regular doctors’ appointments, have blood tests, etc. In addition to this, there will be times when you may find it difficult to manag...

Hyperthyroidism in Children and Adolescents

American Thyroid Association Year: N/A
What Is Hyperthyroidism? The term hyperthyroidism refers to any condition in which there is too much thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is another term that is sometimes used to describe this condition. What Is the Thyroid Gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland that is located in the lower front of the neck, just above the collarbone. The role of t...
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208 resources available:
The history of medicine often shows us that a novel idea is not as novel as it may first appear. This is the case with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). It was first described between 1040 and 1136 AD as a systemic disorder relating enlargement of the thyroid gland to exophthalmos. This concept of a systemic condition causing exophthalmos was later readdressed in greater detail by Parry (1786) and Graves (1835). The condition is named afte...
Objective: Thyroid autoimmunity has been reported to be associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination recently. We report a series of patients who presented with new onset or relapse of Graves’ disease-related hyperthyroidism shortly after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine at a single tertiary institution in Singapore. Me...
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It has an autoimmune basis with the activating thyrotropin-receptor antibodies inducing thyroid hormone overproduction. The most common manifestations of hyperthyroidism are weight loss, fatigue, heat intolerance, tremor, and palpitations, but there are several other symptoms and signs associated with this condition. We report a case of a young woman who presented in the emergency...
Hyperthyroidism causes weight loss in the majority, but its effect is variable and 10% of patients gain weight. Its treatment usually leads to weight gain and some studies have reported an excess weight regain. However, there is considerable inter-individual variability and a differential effect on body weight by different treatments, with some studies reporting more weight increase with radioiodine, and perhaps surgery, compared with anti-thy...

Racial Disparities in Thyroid Surgery: Summary for the Public

Clinical Thyroidology for the Public Year: 2020
Background: Recent protests over police brutality, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, have brought to attention the systemic racism that pervades all sectors of our society, including the practice of medicine. No exception exists in endocrinology, where racial inequity is found in many areas, most notably in diabetes care and management. Thyroid surgery is a commonly used treatment for many non-cancerous thyroid...

Racial Disparities in Surgical Outcomes for Benign Thyroid Disease

The American Journal of Surgery Year: 2020
Introduction: Previous studies have shown racial disparities in surgical outcomes in malignant thyroid disease. We hypothesize that minority groups have a higher incidence of postoperative complications following surgery for benign thyroid disease. Methods: Using NSQIP (2016-2017), patients (>17 years) undergoing thyroid surgery for benign disease were identified. Outcomes included neck hematoma,...
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8 resources available:
Graves’ disease is the most frequent form of hyperthyroidism in iodine sufficient countries, and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is its most important and common extrathyroidal manifestation, affecting about 25 % of patients. Although GO is generally mild and rarely progressive, thyroid dysfunction, both hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, can influence its course. GO has been reported to improve after correction of hyperthyroidism with antithyr...
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient’s quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control...
Introduction: Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome resulting from excessive circulating thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperthyroidism or due to other causes. This article describes evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of thyrotoxicosis. Objective: This...
Graves’ disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by the infiltration of thyroid antigen-specific T cells into thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R)-expressing tissues. Stimulatory autoantibodies (Ab) in GD activate the TSH-R leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Diagnosis of GD is straightforward in a patient with biochemically confirmed thyrotoxicosis, positive TSH-...
Background: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the guidelines for the management of these disorders by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis...
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diag...
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20 resources available:
Background: Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is the most common method of treating Graves’ disease (GD) in the United States.  The current practice is to reevaluate these patients 2-3 months after RAI.  The majority are hypothyroid by that time with some experiencing related troublesome symptoms and possible development or worsening of Graves’ orbitopathy.  We initiated this randomized controlled trial (RCT) to d...
The diagnosis of Graves’ disease (GD) is traditionally based on the clinical features of persisting hyperthyroidism, enlarged thyroid gland, and often the presence of ophthalmopathy. However, when the clinical presentation of thyrotoxicosis is not diagnostic of GD, the 2011 American Thyroid Association guideline recommends “a radioactive iodine uptake scan should be performed”. Although it is long recognized that Thyrotropin (TSH) recept...
There are three effective treatments for Graves Disease (GD): thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine, and antithyroid drugs. These options differ in their efficacy, safety, convenience, and costs; none is clearly superior to the others for all patients. Practice patterns, however, suggest that patients are more likely to receive a particular mode of therapy depending on where they receive care. This inconsistency of practice suggests that GD patien...
Introduction: It is possible that the higher cardiovascular risk in Graves’ disease (GD) may be due not only to hemodynamic changes induced by the hyperthyroid state, but also to alterations in the cardiovascular risk factor profile. Aim: The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between thyroid function in GD and lipoprotein profile, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, high-se...
Introduction: The cardiovascular system function is modulated by thyroid hormone levels. The antibodies involved in Graves’ disease are central to the pathophysiological consequences of the disease but the impact of their evolution over time is still an area of interest. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between thyroid function, autoimmunity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk...
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD). According to Rundle’s curve, GO is characterized by an initial phase of increasing activity (inflammatory phase), a severity peak, and a stable plateau phase (fibrotic phase). This overview has an implication in GO therapeutics. Different patterns that are still distinct from Rundle’s curve have not yet been described. There were 5...
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11 resources available:
Thyrotoxic crisis better known as thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening endocrine emergency that is the result of dysregulated hypermetabolic state caused by excessive production and release of thyroid hormones compromising multiple organ systems. Unfortunately, this condition carries significant mortality depending on whether the thyroid storm was associated with thyrotoxicosis. Early recognition and treatment are paramount to survival. He...
A healthy 52-year-old woman has had persistent palpitations recently. Serum TSH is < 0.02 mIU/mL (reference, 0.3-4.7 mIU/mL), free T4 is 5.70 ng/dL (reference, 0.8-1.7 ng/dL), and free triiodothyronine (T3) is 1920 pg/dL (reference, 222-383 pg/nL). She has fine bilateral hand tremors and sinus tachycardia. How do we work up this new diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis? This is one of the most common consults we receive. Thyroid antibodies m...
The purpose of the current study is to confirm safety/tolerability and key pharmacodynamic (PD) effects that are considered to drive clinical benefit in GO patients.    Primary Outcome Measure:  • Assessment of safety by analysis of adverse events (AEs) data [ Time Frame: 7 Weeks ] AE summaries of the number and percent of participants reporting each event at least once will be generated. Other saf...

Trial of Rituximab for Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

U.S. National Library of Medicine Year: 2016
Brief Summary: This study is being done to investigate the effects (good and bad) of Rituximab for the treatment of an autoimmune eye disease called Graves’ ophthalmopathy. This disease has proven to be difficult to treat. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that depletes a line of cells involved in the autoimmune response. The study hypotheses is that rituximab is effective in the treatment of patients with moderate to...
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). It usually affects people between 30-60 years of age and is much more common in women than men. Patients with Graves’ disease, often have enlarged thyroids (goiter) and bulging eyes (exophthalmos). There are three main options to treat Graves’ disease: antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine therapy and surgery. The most common ATDs in use are...
Early Symptoms TED can first present with signs or symptoms such as sensitivity to light, a feeling of grittiness in the eyes, excessive tearing, eye pain, or dry eyes. However, these symptoms are often confused with other conditions, such as allergies or dry eye symptoms. Evidence shows that even these first, seemingly mild symptoms can negatively affect patient quality of life. Overlooking them can lead to unnecessary...
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